List of subject articles


    • Open Access Article

      1 - Comparison the changes of two Hinosan and Butachlor toxins in Groundwater resources from Guilan province
      maryam panahandeh mehdi ashournia Mirmoslem Rahbar hashemi hadi Modabberi
      The aim of this study was to compare the content of two commonly used poisons in Guilan province in order to increase the crops, especially rice, in water used by residents of Gilan in spring. For this purpose, 20 wells were selected in the villages of Guilan. The extra Full Text
      The aim of this study was to compare the content of two commonly used poisons in Guilan province in order to increase the crops, especially rice, in water used by residents of Gilan in spring. For this purpose, 20 wells were selected in the villages of Guilan. The extraction process was carried out using liquid and N-hexane-dichloromethane (1: 1) phases for analysis. The extraction product was injected into a gas chromatograph with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) for measurement. The sampling and measurement process was carried out. Quantitative measurements were carried out using external standard methods. The studies carried out confirmed that in the study chapter, the study of the content of Hinosan and Butachlor pesticides is not more than standard and more acceptable, but due to their toxicity and their long-term effects on creatures Consumers, especially humans, it be used continuous monitoring of their amount in water by residents. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      2 - Groundwater vulnerability assessment using drastic method based on GIS in central plain of Guilan
      Industrial and agricultural developments and the population of rural and communities led to excessive consumption of chemical detergents and fertilizers and increasing industrial wastwater which threaten water resources in last decades. Vulnerability of the water resour Full Text
      Industrial and agricultural developments and the population of rural and communities led to excessive consumption of chemical detergents and fertilizers and increasing industrial wastwater which threaten water resources in last decades. Vulnerability of the water resources is a continuation of such trends. The first step in management of the groundwater resources is a determination of the vulnerable areas. The objective of this research was determin the vulnerability assessment of the central plain of Guilan using DRASTIC model. Principles of the model are based on overlaying of seven thematic maps of depth to water table, net recharges, aquifer media, soil media, topography, vados zone and hydraulic conductivity by considering appropriate weights and rates. The database was constructed by introducing the mentionec maps. Index of DRASTIC model for aquifer vulnerability of the central plain Guilan was ranged in 82-182. In this plain, there was not very much and very low vulnerability classes. The final map of DRASTIC model showed that % 48.64 of the area has high vulnerability and % 50.55 has medium vulnerability and only a small area of plain (% 0.81) has low vulnerability. Th estatistical summary of the DRASTIC model elements shows that the element of depth to groundwater table has the greatest impact on DRASTIC model. Also based on the map remove and single element sensitivity, depth to groundwater table is identified as the effective element in the central plain of Guilan. The results of the correlation between the elements of DRASTIC model and nitrate concenteration showed that there is the highest correlation between nitrate and depth to groundwater table. The average concentration of nitrates is 8.92 mg/lit in the wells studied at the Central Plains Guilan. In all wells studied, nitrate concentration was lower than the recommended level by US Environmental Protection Agency (45 mg/lit). Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      3 - An Overview of Oil Pollution in the Caspian Sea
      Hamoun Jalilzadeh mehran parsa mohammad reza golriz eram sadati
      Crude oil is a mixture of pure compounds, from the chemical point of view, oil is a mixture of hundreds of molecular compounds called hydrocarbons. Therefore, in this article, various families of hydrocarbons are studied without going into organic chemistry. Then, oil h Full Text
      Crude oil is a mixture of pure compounds, from the chemical point of view, oil is a mixture of hundreds of molecular compounds called hydrocarbons. Therefore, in this article, various families of hydrocarbons are studied without going into organic chemistry. Then, oil hydrocarbons and in particular PAHs, which are the main subject of this research, are being examined. Moreover, an overview of the information gathered about the effects and toxicity of these compounds. The presence of oil pollution in many years in the seas and coastlines of the world has made this topic very much to be considered. Many studies have been conducted to investigate these contaminations, some of which are mentioned in this article. Oil pollution studies related to the Caspian Sea are widely discussed in this paper. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      4 - The Investigation of Ability to Degradation and Removal of Various Dyes Using Silver Colloidal Nanoparticles
      Mohadeseh Tavakoli Fariba Ostovar
      Colors are one of the most important pollutants of water, and only one entry into the water can significantly reduce the quality of water. In addition, due to the synthetic origin and the presence of complex molecules in the structure of colors, the purification process Full Text
      Colors are one of the most important pollutants of water, and only one entry into the water can significantly reduce the quality of water. In addition, due to the synthetic origin and the presence of complex molecules in the structure of colors, the purification process is sometimes accompanied by some problems. Colloidal nanoparticles play an important role in technology, especially in the manufacture of glass and ceramics, and are used as a suitable method for cleaning pollutants in water and wastewater. In this study, a chemical regeneration method was used to synthesize colloidal silver nanoparticles. Then, to evaluate the efficiency of synthetic silver nanoparticles, several solutions of dye and pigments such as sulfur, azo, reactive, cationic and anionic dyes were prepared and synthetic material was used for degradation of different colors. Finally, the effect of this colloidal nanoparticle on each of them was studied and compared. The results showed that silver colloidal nanoparticles have the ability to degradation and removal of methyl orange and methyl red dyes from aqueous samples, and these nanoparticles can be used for treatment the water and wastewater containing these dyes. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      5 - Analysis of vulnerability of groundwater resources and analysis of the sensitivity of drastic model using map removal and single-element mapping methods using Monte Carlo technique
      hadi Modabberi Mirmoslem Rahbar hashemi mehdi ashournia
      Applying a proper management on water resources by identifying vulnerable areas as the first solution can be useful. The purpose of this study was to assess the vulnerability in the central plain of Guilan with drastic model. To identify the vulnerable areas of the cent Full Text
      Applying a proper management on water resources by identifying vulnerable areas as the first solution can be useful. The purpose of this study was to assess the vulnerability in the central plain of Guilan with drastic model. To identify the vulnerable areas of the central plain of the Guilan plain to pollution, drastic model was used and an aquifer vulnerability map was developed. The principles of the drastic model are based on the combination of seven components, depth to static level, net nutrition, aquifer environment, soil environment, topography, unsaturated environment, and hydraulic conductivity, which after ranking and applying weight impact on each component and algebraic composition of seven components, the final result will indicate the aquifer vulnerability. For this purpose, first, the information of the seven components in the central aquifer of Guilan was collected, and after entering in the GIS software, the layers needed for the model were finally prepared. Then, by using overlapping techniques after applying the required weight coefficients for each layer, a final vulnerability map was prepared. The profile of the drastic model varied from 82 to 182 for the vulnerability of the central aquifer of Guilan. The final drastic model map showed that 48.64% of the area had a high vulnerability and 50.55% had moderate vulnerability and only a small area of the plain (0.81%) had a low vulnerability. Based on the sensitivity method of map removal and single component and using the Monte Carlo technique, the depth distance to the station level was identified as the most effective component and saturation zone as the second most effective component in the central plain of Guilan. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      6 - Numerical Simulation of the effect of wall divergence and reverse slope on the charcterestics of hydraulic jump using Flow3D sofware
      Amir  kasi Kovzani Mohammad hosein  karimi Pashaki
      Stilling basins are one of the most common structures for energy depreciation of flow with high velocity that among different sections and types of these basins, diverging stilling basins have better hydraulic performance and lower constructional costs. In this research Full Text
      Stilling basins are one of the most common structures for energy depreciation of flow with high velocity that among different sections and types of these basins, diverging stilling basins have better hydraulic performance and lower constructional costs. In this research, numerical modeling capability of diverging hydraulic jump on the reverse slope was investigated using Flow3D software. Experimental model data was used at divergence angles of 5 and 10 degrees in diverging angels of 1.3, 2.35, 3.2, 4.57 degrees in addition to classic hydraulic jump. The outputs of simulation model in comparison with the results of experimental data indicated that the model shows the amount of water surface profiles, jump length and maximum velocity in depth with good accuracy. The results showed that the mean relative error of water depth obtained from numerical model and measured values is about 15 percent. The velocity profiles were also in good agreement with the measured data. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      7 - Evaluation the hydrodynamic and morphology changes in Sefidrood river estuary
      مرتضی کریمی Jamal Mohammad  Vali Samani
      Geomorphic changes of low-coastal areas, such as wetlands, estuaries and beaches depend heavily on the balance between input sediment from the basin or the sea and the outflow sediment with erosion source arising from wind waves and tidal flows. In this research, the fl Full Text
      Geomorphic changes of low-coastal areas, such as wetlands, estuaries and beaches depend heavily on the balance between input sediment from the basin or the sea and the outflow sediment with erosion source arising from wind waves and tidal flows. In this research, the flow and sediment pattern were investigated using MIKE21 model in the Sefidrud River and how the influence of flow pattern, sediment transport and sea water level changes on evolution of the delta and coastline were studied by landsat. The factors such as flow and sediment load of the river, sea level, wind and wave pattern are the most important factors which affect these changes. This study can provide a properly field for a right management in order to the region’s sustainable development, adequate knowledge of the Sefid-Roud hydrodynamic and sediment situation in estuary area, as well as taking the necessary measures to prevent damages caused by the Caspian Sea’s long-term fluctuations in the Sefid-Roud’s deltaic region. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      8 - Determination of the Relationship between Water Turbidity (NTU) and Total Suspended solids (TSS) in drip irrigation
      farhad mirzaei zeynab sojoodi
      Sand filters are composed of sand-filled containers with determined granulation and specified thicknesses of pressurized sand layers that work under pressure and they are placed in the center control system after the cyclone and before the grid or disk filter. The aim o Full Text
      Sand filters are composed of sand-filled containers with determined granulation and specified thicknesses of pressurized sand layers that work under pressure and they are placed in the center control system after the cyclone and before the grid or disk filter. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between water turbidity and Total suspended solids (TSS). To determine the samples turbidity, they were tested using a spectrophotometer and the percentage of light passing was obtained through each sample separately. The test of determining total suspended solids was also performed. The results of this experiment showed that there is a quadratic equation between the percentage of light passing and total suspended solids, which is presented as the main equation from figure 3, that is more correlated with the data. As can be seen, at 450 nm, there is a higher correlation between the turbidity and the light transmittance and less error. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      9 - Application of Drastic Model in the Studying Process of Industrial Development of Sari Plain
      mohammad rahmani tahere azari
      New industrial estates developments must follow the effective factors in protection, management and sustainable development of aquifers and water resources in a plain in order to meet the needs of people. Therefore, assessment of the aquifer vulnerability potential for Full Text
      New industrial estates developments must follow the effective factors in protection, management and sustainable development of aquifers and water resources in a plain in order to meet the needs of people. Therefore, assessment of the aquifer vulnerability potential for locating new industrial estates settlements is necessary. So, investigation of the vulnerability of Sari plain groundwater resources for locating the industrial zones is necessery. In this research, the risk map of the plain was prepared using a drastic model to assessment of the effective hydrogeological factors in locating the industrial estates of Sari plain. The results of the Drastic model showed that Sari aquifer vulnerability is classified in three groups of highly vulnerable (10.49%,), very highly vulnerable (56.66%) and too highly vulnerable (32.85%). Sensitivity analysis based on two-way single parameter and parameter deletion methods showed that the depth of the water-table factor is the most sensitive factor on the DRASTIC vulnerability index. Sari aquifer is strongly affected by agricultural and industrial activities' pollutants due to shallow water-table; so, the study area is not suitable for establishment of industrial estates based on the final vulnerability map, the aquifer extreme vulnerability potential and the amount of exsisting pollutant. Also, if environmental considerations are not respected by farmers and the existing industrial units in the plain, the aquifer will be suffering serious damages. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      10 - Investigation of Gilan index dams' water quality using multivariate methods
      Hanieh Mirbolooki Babak Razdar Matin Mohafezatkar
      Nowadays, the importance of water is known more than before as a life factor and the axis of sustainable development that to protect and manage it, it needs to be controlled using laboratory tests and various water quality indexes. The purpose of this study was to inves Full Text
      Nowadays, the importance of water is known more than before as a life factor and the axis of sustainable development that to protect and manage it, it needs to be controlled using laboratory tests and various water quality indexes. The purpose of this study was to investigate water quality in diversion dams in Guilan province in which the dams have been ranked using Shannon and TOPSIS entropy methods. The dams included Pasikhan, Shakhzar, Polrud and Tarik and the measured indicators included Ec, pH, TDS, Temperature, SO4, HCO3, Cl, Ca, Mg, Na, TSS, DO, BOD5 and COD. Shannon entropy results showed that among the indicators, the highest index weight is related to TSS with the amount of 0.1973 and the lowest one is related to pH with the amount of zero. Topsis tests results showed that based on the weights derived from entropy and water quality indicators, Pasikhan dam is in the first rank, Polrud dam is in the second rank, Shakhzar dam is in the third rank and Tarik dam is in the last rank. So, according to multivariate selection methods, water quality in different dams with similar conditions can be investigated. Manuscript Document