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    پژوهش و فناوری محیط زیست


    Latest published articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Spatial patterns of trees and height story competition over forest developmental stages in the mixed stands of Guilan
      Maryam Kazempour Larsary Kambiz Taheri Abkenar Reza Akhavan Hassan pourbabaei
      Issue 8 , Volume 5 , Autumn_Winter 2021
      Spatial patterns of trees and their interactions specifically reflect mortality, gap creation, resource use, and also determine population dynamics such as seed dispersal, understory development, initial survival and establishment, growth, and competition. In this study Full Text
      Spatial patterns of trees and their interactions specifically reflect mortality, gap creation, resource use, and also determine population dynamics such as seed dispersal, understory development, initial survival and establishment, growth, and competition. In this study, three one-hectare sample plots in the three stages of early development, maturity and decay were selected in an untouched mixed beech forest in order to consider competition of trees from different height stories along developmental stages and all trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) larger than 7.5 cm by species were measured based on chest diameter, height and determination of cartesian coordinates using distance-azimuth method. Then, these stems data were first divided into three groups (lower, middle and upper stories) depending on their location in the vertical strata. The spatial patterns and spatial associations were analyzed among different tree height classes using univariate and bivariate Ripley’s K-function. Results showed that spatial pattern varied with canopy strata and scales in different development stages. Positively spatial associations of Fagus orientalis at upper and lower stories in initial and optimal staged and also among F. orientalis at upper and middle stories in decay stages influenced by shade-tolerance characteristics, seed dispersal limitation and the role of larger nurse trees as a shelter of small trees. Competition for resources was observed between Fagus orientalis at the middle story and Carpinus betulus at upper story in the all development stages. Recognizing spatial pattern and natural events guided by nature over time are necessary to carry out targeted forestry operations and In proportion to the evolutionary stages of forest stands. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Investigation of birds' density and species diversity of Amir-Kelayeh international wetland during a 10-year period (2007-2016), based on winter census
      Hadi Pourmosa shaykhAlikelayeh Saeid  Naderi
      Issue 8 , Volume 5 , Autumn_Winter 2021
      Amir-Kelayeh international wetland is as one of the important wintering habitats for birds. In present study, the density and diversity of bird species (waterbird, wader and terrestrial bird dependent to the wetland) has been studied in Amir-Kelayeh international wetlan Full Text
      Amir-Kelayeh international wetland is as one of the important wintering habitats for birds. In present study, the density and diversity of bird species (waterbird, wader and terrestrial bird dependent to the wetland) has been studied in Amir-Kelayeh international wetland based on the semi-winter birds census data, over a 10-year statistical period. During this ten-year period, the total number of 334776 birds from 46 different birds species was recorded in this wetland. Among the studied years, the highest number of 72188 birds in 2008 and the lowest number of 1877 birds in 2015 have been counted. In terms of quality and food items, this wetland and it's around paddy fields is a good refuge for the Anatidae and Rallidae family that with 64.86 and 50.06 percent of frequency depending on their diet, have the most abundant among the identified family. The biodiversity indexes showed a relatively high amounts, but with a declining trend, and also the index of species evenness indicated a stable trend during this 10-year period in Amir-Kelayeh Wetland. Considering the decreasing trend of biodiversity indexes in Amir-Kelayeh wetland in recent years, increasing the wetland ecological conservation through the management plans such as habitat structure conservation, and illegal hunting and pollution control is recommended. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Investigation of Gilan index dams' water quality using multivariate methods
      Hanieh Mirbolooki Babak Razdar Matin Mohafezatkar
      Issue 8 , Volume 5 , Autumn_Winter 2021
      Nowadays, the importance of water is known more than before as a life factor and the axis of sustainable development that to protect and manage it, it needs to be controlled using laboratory tests and various water quality indexes. The purpose of this study was to inves Full Text
      Nowadays, the importance of water is known more than before as a life factor and the axis of sustainable development that to protect and manage it, it needs to be controlled using laboratory tests and various water quality indexes. The purpose of this study was to investigate water quality in diversion dams in Guilan province in which the dams have been ranked using Shannon and TOPSIS entropy methods. The dams included Pasikhan, Shakhzar, Polrud and Tarik and the measured indicators included Ec, pH, TDS, Temperature, SO4, HCO3, Cl, Ca, Mg, Na, TSS, DO, BOD5 and COD. Shannon entropy results showed that among the indicators, the highest index weight is related to TSS with the amount of 0.1973 and the lowest one is related to pH with the amount of zero. Topsis tests results showed that based on the weights derived from entropy and water quality indicators, Pasikhan dam is in the first rank, Polrud dam is in the second rank, Shakhzar dam is in the third rank and Tarik dam is in the last rank. So, according to multivariate selection methods, water quality in different dams with similar conditions can be investigated. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Investigation of forest land use degradation due to dam construction using satellite images processing
      mandana azizi mohammad panahandeh
      Issue 8 , Volume 5 , Autumn_Winter 2021
      Identify land uses and land use changes to investigate and monitor sensitive areas is essential for sustainable land planning and management. The main objective of this study is to investigate the land use changes caused by the construction of Shafarood Dam in the Hyrca Full Text
      Identify land uses and land use changes to investigate and monitor sensitive areas is essential for sustainable land planning and management. The main objective of this study is to investigate the land use changes caused by the construction of Shafarood Dam in the Hyrcanian forests in the north of Iran during a 17-year period using Landsat satellite imagery. To do this, three satellite imagery of the years 2000, 2013 and 2017 were used, and the corrections (geometric and atmospheric) were applied on the images and the map of the land use for each section in the region was prepared using the classification method of the maximum likelihood that the produced map have Kappa coefficient more than 86% and usage accuracy of 0.83. After classification, the comparison method was used to monitor the land use changes. The results revealed that in every three years, the most land cover of Shafarood watershed belongs to the forest class and in the next rank belongs to the rangeland class. As a result, the continuous decline of the forest class accured from 63.05 percent to 57.27 and 57.22 percent in the first section for the years 2013 and 2017 respectively. The continuous increase of the rock class (8.15-9.10-10.45) and bare lands (3.5- 4.47-5.08%) confirms it in the study area. Environmental challenges of constructing the Shafaroud dam is another emphasis on the importance of conducting advanced and specialized studies based on ecological methodologies and also increasing the decision makers awareness of Hyrcanian forests complexity which has formed in a very long-time period. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Comparison of support vector machine and artificial neural network classification methods to produce landuse maps (Case study: Bojagh National Park)
      Mahsa Abdoli Laktasaraei Maryam  Haghighi khomami
      Issue 8 , Volume 5 , Autumn_Winter 2021
      National parks and wildlife shelter are the most important natural heritages; therefore, knowing of quantitative and qualitative changes in their land use plays an essential role in the quality of these areas' management. various algorithms have been developed to classi Full Text
      National parks and wildlife shelter are the most important natural heritages; therefore, knowing of quantitative and qualitative changes in their land use plays an essential role in the quality of these areas' management. various algorithms have been developed to classify satellite imagery in remote sensing, selecting an appropriate classification algorithm is very important in achieving the accurate results. In this research, a more accurate algorithm was determined by comparing the classification accuracy of two artificial neural network and support vector machine algorithms, and it was used to examine the process of the land use changes. The present study was performed in Boujagh National Park, in the Guilan Province, during the years 2000 to 2017, using satellite imagery ETM and OLI of Landsat 7 and 8. The results of the research revealed that the support vector machine algorithm with overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient of 86.42 and 0.83 respectively for the year 2000 and, 90.65 and 0.88 for the year 2017, classified the satellite images more precisely, in comparison with the artificial neural network algorithm with overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient of 83.71 and 0.80 respectively for the year 2000 and overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient of 89.25 and 0.87 for the year 2017. Therefore, the land use maps of the support vector machine algorithm were used to determine the land use changes. The study of land use change by this method concluded that the areas of the waterbody, sea, grassland and agriculture have decreased and marshland, woody and bare lands classes showed an increase during the study period. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Effect of using dill (Anethum graveolens) whole plant powder on performance of some blood parameters, and skeletal system of broilers
      ali Reyan Mohasesi Hasan Darmani Koohi Reza Naseri Harsini Hamed Kioumarsi هوشنگ دهقان زاده
      Issue 8 , Volume 5 , Autumn_Winter 2021
      To investigate the effects of the whole dill plant powder different levels on performance of some blood parameters and tibial characteristics of broilers, 200 one-day-old male chicks (Ross-308) were used in a completely randomized design with four treatments and five re Full Text
      To investigate the effects of the whole dill plant powder different levels on performance of some blood parameters and tibial characteristics of broilers, 200 one-day-old male chicks (Ross-308) were used in a completely randomized design with four treatments and five replicates (10 chicks per replicate). Chicks were randomly distributed among the experimental treatments including 0, 0.5, 0.1, and 0.2% levels of whole dill plant powder. In regards to feed intake and weight gain during the entire growing period, the treatments contained 1% and 2% of dill plant powder had the highest and the lowest feed intake, respectively, and treatments containing 0.5% dill powder and control group were in the middle of the first two treatments (P<0.05). In terms of feed conversion ratio, the only significant difference observed between treatments throughout the entire experimental period was a significant increase in the amount of feed conversion ratio in the chicks treated with 2% dill plant powder. Serum alkaline phosphatase concentration showed a significant increase in both assessing periods (21 and 42 days) for the 2% dill plant powder treatment compared to the other experimental treatments (P<0.05). Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were not affected by experimental diets. The weight, length, width, and ash percentage of the tibial bone did not show any significant difference between the experimental treatments. The results of this study showed that using 1% of dill plant powder in broiler chicken diets, while improving growth performance, did not have any adverse effect on skeletal growth and development of chickens. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Evaluation of the Iron (III) oxide/sawdust nanocomposite efficiency in COD removal from landfill leachate: optimization and evaluation of adsorption isotherms
      niloofar Abedinzade Hamid Sharafinasab Fariba Ostovar
      Issue 8 , Volume 5 , Autumn_Winter 2021
      One of the characteristics of municipal wastes is the high percentage of perishable organic matter, which is associated with a significant amount of leachate production. Waste leachate, whether fresh, compost or landfill leachate, has a variety of suspended and soluble Full Text
      One of the characteristics of municipal wastes is the high percentage of perishable organic matter, which is associated with a significant amount of leachate production. Waste leachate, whether fresh, compost or landfill leachate, has a variety of suspended and soluble organic and inorganic materials, and may also contain a variety of pathogens and heavy metal compounds. Therefore, the leachate can lead to many environmental problems. The purpose of this study is COD removal from landfill leachate using bio-magnetic iron (III) oxide/sawdust nanocomposite. First, Fe3O4/SD magnetic nanocomposite was synthesized by the chemical precipitation method and the structure and morphology of the synthesized nanocomposite were investigated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Field Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) technique. Then, the effect of influential variables on the adsorption process including pH, contact time, adsorbent amount, and temperature on the removal of COD were investigated. The results of effective parameters showed that the highest COD removal efficiency was observed at pH 7, the adsorbent amount of 0.4 g, the contact time of 45 minutes, and the temperature of 45°C with a removal efficiency of about 70%. Also, the isotherm studies confirmed that the removal process followed the Freundlich isotherm more closely (R2= 0.9243) and the heterogeneity and multilayers of the adsorption process were confirmed. Finally, the results showed that treatment of the landfill centers leachate's organic load is possible using the adsorption process of Fe3O4/SD magnetic nanocomposite and can be used as an efficient method in leachate treatment of landfill centers and compost plants. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Assessment of Pollutant Potential in Gorgan Bay, Using SWOT Analytical Model and Providing Acceptable Solutions
      niloufar norouzi
      Issue 8 , Volume 5 , Autumn_Winter 2021
      Gorgan Bay in Golestan Province is important biological and fisheries area; while in recent years, it has been contaminated Severely; Therefore, the most important pollutant factors were studied using SWOT model in this study.For this purpose, weaknesses, strengths, thr Full Text
      Gorgan Bay in Golestan Province is important biological and fisheries area; while in recent years, it has been contaminated Severely; Therefore, the most important pollutant factors were studied using SWOT model in this study.For this purpose, weaknesses, strengths, threats and opportunities have been identified in the ecosystem and were evaluated by 10 ecology and hydrology scientists. The results included 2.4 for external factors and 1.89 for internal factors. Accordingly, both values are in the range of defensive strategies. Defensive strategies control existing weaknesses and threats to improve ecosystem conditions. The most important pressure factors on the ecosystem are being the main canals of the sea closed to the bay, the entry of various pollutants into the ecosystem and poor physiography of Gorgan Bay. According to the importance of the surface water resources in terms of food production for society, and in order to sustainable development, we should manage them consciously to provide suitable habitat for aquatic species in addition to protecting water resources. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      9 - Ecotourism as a mechanism to achieve a green economy in Iran
      Foroogh Shadman Maryam Jafary
      Issue 8 , Volume 5 , Autumn_Winter 2021
      Ecotourism seeks to minimize the impact of tourism on the environment. Green economy as an economic system is based on human welfare and social equality that seeks to significantly reduce environmental risks. The present study surveys one of the specialized potentials o Full Text
      Ecotourism seeks to minimize the impact of tourism on the environment. Green economy as an economic system is based on human welfare and social equality that seeks to significantly reduce environmental risks. The present study surveys one of the specialized potentials of tourism in the country- ecotourism- to apply the principles of this development model. Ecotourism with natural management of a tourist area can create jobs without destructive and exploitative actions in nature, which will be beneficial for the region in the future. Also, ecotourism, as a possible potential can encourage the community to extensively implement green economy, in addition to promoting environmental awareness and providing benefits and financial empowerment of local people. Therefore, the present study, identifies the opportunities and threats of external factors and the strengths and weaknesses of internal factors for the development of ecotourism as a driving force of green economy in the country meanwhile examining the existing national and international background using SWOT analysis. The results indicate the need to take advantage of opportunities such as attracting regional, international cooperation and foreign investment by taking principles advantage of biodiversity and geographical location in the country along with the participation of local communities in decision-making, job creation and earning money. Therefore, in addition to the role that the tourism boom plays in the development of a green economy, it will also performs a significant role in the country's GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and foreign exchange income of the country. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      10 - Modeling the emission distribution of Neka power plant with the prospect of achieving the design of eco-industrial park
      hanzale shabani abdolreza karbasi naser mehrdadi
      Issue 8 , Volume 5 , Autumn_Winter 2021
      Abstract In designing ecological industrial parks, an attempt is to maximize the self-purification of the system by defined mechanisms in order to reduce the pollution produced by industries first and then, to reuse the by-products of industrial processes. Due to the Full Text
      Abstract In designing ecological industrial parks, an attempt is to maximize the self-purification of the system by defined mechanisms in order to reduce the pollution produced by industries first and then, to reuse the by-products of industrial processes. Due to the high vulnerability of the coastal sector, species diversity and rapid sequence in the region, the use of environmental methods in the environment of shahid salimi powerplant (Neka) is inevitable. The purpose of this study is to calculate and model the distribution of SO2, NOx pollutants to be displayed seasonally and annually using ADMS software in the form of GIS layers and to achieve the design criteria of an eco- industrial park in the study area, the mass flow of SO2 and NOx is calculated in gr/sec and also the flue smoke of the powerplant fuel consumption is analyzed in cold and hot seasons of the year separately. The results showed that in Neka power plant, the average concentration of NOx gas per unit of steam is 304 ¬μg/m3 and in combined cycle unit is 77.75 ¬μg/m3 and also the average concentration of SO2 per unit of steam is 267.25 ¬μg/m3 during the year which does not meet any of WHO and European clean air standards. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      11 - Investigation of the effect of repair and maintenance performance on the HSE indexes (Case study: Iran Zamin Printing Industrial Group)
      ehsan  moghadam zahra abedi reza gholamnia
      Issue 8 , Volume 5 , Autumn_Winter 2021
      Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maintenance performance on HSE indicators in Iran Zamin Printing Industrial Group. Therefore, first the dimensions and maintenance performance and HSE dimensions are identified and then the relationships b Full Text
      Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maintenance performance on HSE indicators in Iran Zamin Printing Industrial Group. Therefore, first the dimensions and maintenance performance and HSE dimensions are identified and then the relationships between the identified variables are presented. The aim of this study was to investigation of the effect of maintenance performance on HSE indexes in Iran Zamin Printing Industrial Group. Therefore, at first the dimentions of maintenance and performance and HSE indexes were identified and then the relationships between the identified variables were presented. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect data related to the measurement of the research variables, which included a total of 2 structures, 10 dimensions and 54 questions. To investigation of the validity of the questionnaire, the content validation method and the structural validity method were used. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to reliability calculation and the reliability was equal to 0.861, which the reliability of the questionnaire has been evaluated as very desirable. The statistical population of this study includes employees and experts of Iran Zamin Printing Industrial Group. After confirming the validity and reliability of the designed scales based on the calculations performed, the questionnaires were distributed in a sample of 108 people. Structural equation modeling has been used to analyze the collected data and determine the relationships between the variables. Also, the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS and LISREL statistical software. According to the analysis of the research hypotheses: Repair and maintenance performance has a significant effect on the structure and dimensions of safety, health and environment in Iran Zamin Printing Industrial Group.Structural equation modeling has been used to analyze the collected data and determine the relationships between the variables. Also, the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS and laser statistical software. According to the analysis of the research hypotheses, the results of the research are as follows: The performance of maintenance has a significant effect on the structure and dimensions of safety, health and environment in Iran Zamin Printing Industrial Group. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      12 - Health, Safety and Environmental risk assessment in automobile manufacturing industry based on FTA and FMEA methods
      Narges Siamian kamran nasirahmadi Razieh  Ehsani Amrehee
      Issue 8 , Volume 5 , Autumn_Winter 2021
      The automobile manufacturing industry has always been the focus of experts attention and those involved in safety and environment due to its extensiveness, huge amount of capital, pervasive risks and large number of people working in this industry and extensive efforts Full Text
      The automobile manufacturing industry has always been the focus of experts attention and those involved in safety and environment due to its extensiveness, huge amount of capital, pervasive risks and large number of people working in this industry and extensive efforts takes place to increase the safety of this industry in the world. The primary purpose of risk assessment is to assess the risk potentials of a project and its potential effects on environmental and human health parameters. This viewpoint can be considered by managers and planners in the processes of design, construction, implementation and maintenance of development plans with the least possible risks and the highest safety. In this research, after conducting library and preliminary studies, we collected information from companies in the utomobile manufacturing industry to analyze the causes of the accidents. Then, by using FTA and FMEA methods, the roots of different types of accidents were traced. The results show that in the initial risk assessment, the highest number of the risk is related to fire risk and the lowest number of the risk is related to dust, glass fiber dust and throwing objects. Manuscript Document
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    • Open Access Article

      1 - Determination of the Relationship between Water Turbidity (NTU) and Total Suspended solids (TSS) in drip irrigation
      farhad mirzaei zeynab sojoodi
      Issue 6 , Volume 4 , Autumn_Winter 2020
      Sand filters are composed of sand-filled containers with determined granulation and specified thicknesses of pressurized sand layers that work under pressure and they are placed in the center control system after the cyclone and before the grid or disk filter. The aim o Full Text
      Sand filters are composed of sand-filled containers with determined granulation and specified thicknesses of pressurized sand layers that work under pressure and they are placed in the center control system after the cyclone and before the grid or disk filter. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between water turbidity and Total suspended solids (TSS). To determine the samples turbidity, they were tested using a spectrophotometer and the percentage of light passing was obtained through each sample separately. The test of determining total suspended solids was also performed. The results of this experiment showed that there is a quadratic equation between the percentage of light passing and total suspended solids, which is presented as the main equation from figure 3, that is more correlated with the data. As can be seen, at 450 nm, there is a higher correlation between the turbidity and the light transmittance and less error. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Assessment and Environmental Impact Analysis of the Urban Streets using Multi-Criteria Decision Making Model (Case Study: 58-meter street of Arak)
      maryam hosseinkhani amir ansari amir Hedayati Agmashhadi
      Issue 6 , Volume 4 , Autumn_Winter 2020
      The purpose of this research is assessing and planning the urban streets of Arak city. In this research, environmental impacts were assessed by using these three methods: Multi-criteria like rapid matrix, ANP and fuzzy TOPSIS that both of them are decision-making method Full Text
      The purpose of this research is assessing and planning the urban streets of Arak city. In this research, environmental impacts were assessed by using these three methods: Multi-criteria like rapid matrix, ANP and fuzzy TOPSIS that both of them are decision-making methods. The process that has been followed in this study includes, determining the indicators, (using library studies), specifying geographic area, introducing the options, studying the environmental basic conditions, indicating and predicting and impacts, assessing the impacts using the three mentioned methods and providing the report. In the following, the status of the environmental factors was investigated. Then, the most important factors that might be affected by 58-meter street construction were identified using checklist, and were selected as the criteria for impact assessment. Then environmental impact assessment was separately fulfilled by using three methods like rapid assessment (matrix), fuzzy TOPSIS and ANP. Due to the the more negative impacts relatively to the positive impacts in the rapid matrix method, the project was rejected. In both fuzzy TOPSIS and ANP methods the non-execution option has the most weight and preference. But among these methods, the ANP method is introduced as a suitable method for environment impacts assessment in different projects because of its ability to create a network with interaction between criteria and options at different levels and directions. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Investigation of Congored dye removal from industrial waste water using adsorption method
      Mohadeseh Tavakoli niloofar Abedinzade
      Issue 6 , Volume 4 , Autumn_Winter 2020
      These days, the removal of various dyes from industrial wastewater has become an important concern. Synthetic dyes used in industries such as textiles are complex, toxic and mutant organic materials. Congored is also an acidic dye that is considered a high- risk source Full Text
      These days, the removal of various dyes from industrial wastewater has become an important concern. Synthetic dyes used in industries such as textiles are complex, toxic and mutant organic materials. Congored is also an acidic dye that is considered a high- risk source of contamination and threatens the lives of humans and other living organisms. Different methods, such as electrochemical, physical and biological processes, are used to remove organic pigment from aqueous samples. Adsorption is one of the most effective modern methods of industrial wastewater treatment, which is a relatively simple and inexpensive process that produces non- toxic and low- risk products. The purpose of this study is removing the Congored dye from aqueous solutions and reviewing the accomplished researches for remove it. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Environmental and Technical Assessment of Biogas Production using Rice Straw
      Mahsa Khodabakhshi pour mohsenq mohammadi mohsen khodabakhshipour
      Issue 6 , Volume 4 , Autumn_Winter 2020
      Energy consumption is increasing rapidly in the world and it is expected that unrenewable energy sources will expire in the future; therefore, new methods of energy production are becoming more common all over the world. Biogas is one of the new and clean energies, whic Full Text
      Energy consumption is increasing rapidly in the world and it is expected that unrenewable energy sources will expire in the future; therefore, new methods of energy production are becoming more common all over the world. Biogas is one of the new and clean energies, which is produced from anaerobic fermentation of biomass. Guilan province with 238,000 hectares of paddy lands has significant potential for biogas production from organic residues. In this way, this study was carried out to investigate the process of biogas production from the combination of rice straw and animal waste with the ratios of (0-100), (5-95), (10-90), (15-85), (20-80) respectively in three repetitions. The experiment was performed at mesophilic temperature by anaerobic digestion method in the 1/5 lit bottles. An economic and environmental assessment for replacement of biogas produced in this process with fossil fuels was implemented in the village of Pounel in Guilan Province. The results showed that the ratio of 10% of rice straw had the highest biogas production efficiency and by replacing the biogas, 21 percent will save in fossil fuel consumption. It will also prevent the emission of 328.42 kg of CO2 gas into the atmosphere per year. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Compare the performance of conventional coagulants made of ferric sulfate turbidity and organic carbon surface water
      Issue 2 , Volume 2 , Spring_Summer 2017
      Water treatment, according to its substantial role in life and also environmental topics, has a great importance. generally speaking, different methods are utilized in water and wastewater treatment such as: sedimentation, filtration and biologic treatment methods. One Full Text
      Water treatment, according to its substantial role in life and also environmental topics, has a great importance. generally speaking, different methods are utilized in water and wastewater treatment such as: sedimentation, filtration and biologic treatment methods. One of the most important methods applied in water and wastewater treatment is coagulation of suspended solid contents of water using coagulants. Coagulants are divided into non-organic (mineral). synthetic organic and non-synthetic organic groups. In this research, efficiency of non-organic (mineral) coagulants including Ferric chloror, Aluminum phosphate, Poly Aluminum chloride & Polly Ferric Sulphate, in coagulation – flocculation process was studied and compared using a Jar test system. It should be mentioned that for the first time in Iran, Polly Ferric Sulphate was tested during research. According to reported results, this coagulation, compared with other coagulants, indicates better performance in conception, heavier flock’s production higher sedimentation velocity, turbidity removal efficiency, organic carbon removal percent and its good performance in a wider range of temperature and pH. Moreover, because of Ferric base, it does not face with common problems of Aluminum based materials. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - A review of the assessment and management of the ecological risk of invasive plants
      ساجده مدنی mokarram ravanbakhsh مریم پناهنده
      Issue 2 , Volume 2 , Spring_Summer 2017
      Due to the increase in human activities, the destructive impact on the environment is not limited to a particular region of the world. Including the destructive impacts are entering non-native plant species around the world that during the 200 years ago with the spread Full Text
      Due to the increase in human activities, the destructive impact on the environment is not limited to a particular region of the world. Including the destructive impacts are entering non-native plant species around the world that during the 200 years ago with the spread of agriculture, increase the exchange of goods, increased human activities as well as increasing environmental destruction, it's increasing. Although only a limited number of non-native species can be invasive, the negative effects of these species on natural and crop communities, human and animal health, and the changing ecosystem characteristics are so high that the research process is constantly expanding in this regard. One of the damages, which has received considerable attention in recent years, is the problem of the introduction of non-native (invasive) plant species into natural ecosystems, but not all non-native species are harmful. Sometimes non-native species are well absorbed by the ecosystem and positioned like native species. But invasive species are species that are not native ecosystems, and their entry causes economic, environmental or human health damage. In this study, the ecological risk assessment of aggressive plants will be provided and suitable strategies for controlling entry and risk reduction will be presented. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Application of Drastic Model in the Studying Process of Industrial Development of Sari Plain
      mohammad rahmani tahere azari
      Issue 6 , Volume 4 , Autumn_Winter 2020
      New industrial estates developments must follow the effective factors in protection, management and sustainable development of aquifers and water resources in a plain in order to meet the needs of people. Therefore, assessment of the aquifer vulnerability potential for Full Text
      New industrial estates developments must follow the effective factors in protection, management and sustainable development of aquifers and water resources in a plain in order to meet the needs of people. Therefore, assessment of the aquifer vulnerability potential for locating new industrial estates settlements is necessary. So, investigation of the vulnerability of Sari plain groundwater resources for locating the industrial zones is necessery. In this research, the risk map of the plain was prepared using a drastic model to assessment of the effective hydrogeological factors in locating the industrial estates of Sari plain. The results of the Drastic model showed that Sari aquifer vulnerability is classified in three groups of highly vulnerable (10.49%,), very highly vulnerable (56.66%) and too highly vulnerable (32.85%). Sensitivity analysis based on two-way single parameter and parameter deletion methods showed that the depth of the water-table factor is the most sensitive factor on the DRASTIC vulnerability index. Sari aquifer is strongly affected by agricultural and industrial activities' pollutants due to shallow water-table; so, the study area is not suitable for establishment of industrial estates based on the final vulnerability map, the aquifer extreme vulnerability potential and the amount of exsisting pollutant. Also, if environmental considerations are not respected by farmers and the existing industrial units in the plain, the aquifer will be suffering serious damages. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      8 - The Investigation of Ability to Degradation and Removal of Various Dyes Using Silver Colloidal Nanoparticles
      Mohadeseh Tavakoli Fariba Ostovar
      Issue 4 , Volume 3 , Spring_Summer 2018
      Colors are one of the most important pollutants of water, and only one entry into the water can significantly reduce the quality of water. In addition, due to the synthetic origin and the presence of complex molecules in the structure of colors, the purification process Full Text
      Colors are one of the most important pollutants of water, and only one entry into the water can significantly reduce the quality of water. In addition, due to the synthetic origin and the presence of complex molecules in the structure of colors, the purification process is sometimes accompanied by some problems. Colloidal nanoparticles play an important role in technology, especially in the manufacture of glass and ceramics, and are used as a suitable method for cleaning pollutants in water and wastewater. In this study, a chemical regeneration method was used to synthesize colloidal silver nanoparticles. Then, to evaluate the efficiency of synthetic silver nanoparticles, several solutions of dye and pigments such as sulfur, azo, reactive, cationic and anionic dyes were prepared and synthetic material was used for degradation of different colors. Finally, the effect of this colloidal nanoparticle on each of them was studied and compared. The results showed that silver colloidal nanoparticles have the ability to degradation and removal of methyl orange and methyl red dyes from aqueous samples, and these nanoparticles can be used for treatment the water and wastewater containing these dyes. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      9 - The application of Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) sensor in water and wastewater treatment industries
      seyed ali rahmani nejad
      Issue 1 , Volume 1 , Autumn_Winter 2017
      The Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) is applied for controlling the chemical and biological reactions. It means, by the help of ORP the tendency of reactions for occurring in aqueous solution are measured. The ORP measurement has been used in variety of applications Full Text
      The Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) is applied for controlling the chemical and biological reactions. It means, by the help of ORP the tendency of reactions for occurring in aqueous solution are measured. The ORP measurement has been used in variety of applications especially, water and wastewater treatment e.g. cyanide detoxification, advanced oxidation processes (production of hydroxyl radicals: fenton), water disinfection and etc. By measuring the ORP during the reaction, the end time of reaction, the required concentration of reactants and optimum conditions be determined. In this study, the use of ORP in most common reactions in water and wastewater industries are investigated. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      10 - Effect of Pennyroyal (Mentha Pulegium L.) on Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Some of the Blood Parameters in Broilers
      Ali Reyan Mohasesi Hasan Darmani Koohi Reza Naseri Harsini Ali Mirza Aghazadeh Hamed Kioumarsi
      Issue 6 , Volume 4 , Autumn_Winter 2020
      To investigate the effects of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) powder on performances, the concentration of some blood parameters and carcass characteristics of broilers, 160 one-day-old Ross chicks were used in the form of a completely randomized design with four treatm Full Text
      To investigate the effects of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) powder on performances, the concentration of some blood parameters and carcass characteristics of broilers, 160 one-day-old Ross chicks were used in the form of a completely randomized design with four treatments and four repetitions. Experimental treatments included the levels of zero (control), 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.6% of pennyroyal powder. The treatment containing 0.6% of pennyroyal powder compared to the control group had higher feed consumption in the starter period (P <0.05). However, there was no significant difference during the growth period and the whole experimental period. In terms of average daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio, there was no significant difference between the experimental treatments during the starter, growth and the whole experimental periods. The carcass percentage decreased significantly at the age of 42 days in treatments containing pennyroyal powder compared to the control group (P <0.05). There was no significant difference between experimental treatments in terms of weight percentage of carcass components including thigh, chest, abdominal fat, heart, liver, and gizzard. The concentration of triglycerides and plasma VLDL decreased significantly in treatments containing pennyroyal powder and decreased linearly compared to the control group (P <0.05). In terms of cholesterol and plasma HDL levels, a significant decrease was observed in treatment containing 0.4 level and treatment containing 0.2 percent of pennyroyal powder compared to the control group (P <0.05) respectively. Plasma LDL levels were not affected by experimental treatments. The results of the present study showed that the use of limited levels of pennyroyal powder up to 0.6% has no significant effect on the performance of broilers. Manuscript Document
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