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      • Open Access Article

        1 - Use of macro-algae as biomass resource for renewable energy production
        mehran parsa Maryam Pazoki hassan hoveidi
        Energy consumption has significantly increased beside of urbanization growth. It may go up so fast that it results in environmental Issues and greater natural resource depletions. Therefore, the use of renewable and clean fuel is considered necessary. Currently, macro-a Full Text
        Energy consumption has significantly increased beside of urbanization growth. It may go up so fast that it results in environmental Issues and greater natural resource depletions. Therefore, the use of renewable and clean fuel is considered necessary. Currently, macro-algae are cultivated in various regions of the world for various industrial and food usages. Macro-algae are known as a specific resource of alternative for energy production due to their biochemical properties such as high level of carbohydrate, lipid and protein. Various biotechnology methods have been developed for energy producing from macro-algae which are divided into two categories: 1) biochemical processes (fermentation, digestion) and 2) thermochemical processes (incineration, pyrolysis, and hydrothermal liquefaction). Depending on the type of methods, the product are categorized under different phases such as solid, liquid and gas. In this study, we will review the methods and studies on the energy production of different species of macroalgae. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - An Overview of Oil Pollution in the Caspian Sea
        Hamoun Jalilzadeh mehran parsa mohammad reza golriz eram sadati
        Crude oil is a mixture of pure compounds, from the chemical point of view, oil is a mixture of hundreds of molecular compounds called hydrocarbons. Therefore, in this article, various families of hydrocarbons are studied without going into organic chemistry. Then, oil h Full Text
        Crude oil is a mixture of pure compounds, from the chemical point of view, oil is a mixture of hundreds of molecular compounds called hydrocarbons. Therefore, in this article, various families of hydrocarbons are studied without going into organic chemistry. Then, oil hydrocarbons and in particular PAHs, which are the main subject of this research, are being examined. Moreover, an overview of the information gathered about the effects and toxicity of these compounds. The presence of oil pollution in many years in the seas and coastlines of the world has made this topic very much to be considered. Many studies have been conducted to investigate these contaminations, some of which are mentioned in this article. Oil pollution studies related to the Caspian Sea are widely discussed in this paper. Manuscript Document